# CREATE AGGREGATE

# CREATE AGGREGATE

## Synopsis

CREATE AGGREGATEname( BASETYPE =input_data_type, SFUNC =sfunc, STYPE =state_type[ , FINALFUNC =ffunc] [ , INITCOND =initial_condition] )

### Inputs

`name`The name (optionally schema-qualified) of an aggregate function to create.

`input_data_type`The input data type on which this aggregate function operates. This can be specified as

`"ANY"`for an aggregate that does not examine its input values (an example is`count(*)`

).`sfunc`The name of the state transition function to be called for each input data value. This is normally a function of two arguments, the first being of type

`state_type`and the second of type`input_data_type`. Alternatively, for an aggregate that does not examine its input values, the function takes just one argument of type`state_type`. In either case the function must return a value of type`state_type`. This function takes the current state value and the current input data item, and returns the next state value.`state_type`The data type for the aggregate's state value.

`ffunc`The name of the final function called to compute the aggregate's result after all input data has been traversed. The function must take a single argument of type

`state_type`. The output data type of the aggregate is defined as the return type of this function. If`ffunc`is not specified, then the ending state value is used as the aggregate's result, and the output type is`state_type`.`initial_condition`The initial setting for the state value. This must be a literal constant in the form accepted for the data type

`state_type`. If not specified, the state value starts out NULL.

## Description

`CREATE AGGREGATE`
allows a user or programmer to extend PostgreSQL
functionality by defining new aggregate functions. Some aggregate functions
for base types such as `min(integer)`

and `avg(double precision)`

are already provided in the base
distribution. If one defines new types or needs an aggregate function not
already provided, then `CREATE AGGREGATE`
can be used to provide the desired features.

If a schema name is given (for example, `CREATE AGGREGATE
myschema.myagg ...`) then the aggregate function is created in the
specified schema. Otherwise it is created in the current schema (the one
at the front of the search path; see `CURRENT_SCHEMA()`).

An aggregate function is identified by its name and input data type. Two aggregates in the same schema can have the same name if they operate on different input types. The name and input data type of an aggregate must also be distinct from the name and input data type(s) of every ordinary function in the same schema.

An aggregate function is made from one or two ordinary
functions:
a state transition function
`sfunc`,
and an optional final calculation function
`ffunc`.
These are used as follows:

sfunc( internal-state, next-data-item ) ---> next-internal-stateffunc( internal-state ) ---> aggregate-value

PostgreSQL creates a temporary variable
of data type `stype`
to hold the current internal state of the aggregate. At each input
data item,
the state transition function is invoked to calculate a new
internal state value. After all the data has been processed,
the final function is invoked once to calculate the aggregate's output
value. If there is no final function then the ending state value
is returned as-is.

An aggregate function may provide an initial condition,
that is, an initial value for the internal state value.
This is specified and stored in the database as a field of type
`text`, but it must be a valid external representation
of a constant of the state value data type. If it is not supplied
then the state value starts out NULL.

If the state transition function is declared "strict",
then it cannot be called with NULL inputs. With such a transition
function, aggregate execution behaves as follows. NULL input values
are ignored (the function is not called and the previous state value
is retained). If the initial state value is NULL, then the first
non-NULL input value replaces the state value, and the transition
function is invoked beginning with the second non-NULL input value.
This is handy for implementing aggregates like `max`

.
Note that this behavior is only available when
`state_type`
is the same as
`input_data_type`.
When these types are different, you must supply a non-NULL initial
condition or use a non-strict transition function.

If the state transition function is not strict, then it will be called unconditionally at each input value, and must deal with NULL inputs and NULL transition values for itself. This allows the aggregate author to have full control over the aggregate's handling of null values.

If the final function is declared "strict", then it will not
be called when the ending state value is NULL; instead a NULL result
will be output automatically. (Of course this is just the normal
behavior of strict functions.) In any case the final function has
the option of returning NULL. For example, the final function for
`avg`

returns NULL when it sees there were zero
input tuples.

## Usage

Refer to the chapter on aggregate functions
in the *PostgreSQL Programmer's Guide* for
complete examples of usage.